Many people use spray bottles every day from cleaning to personal grooming, but few people know how it works. The spray bottle is designed to extract liquid from the bottle using a one-way valve.

Spray bottles use basic fluid mechanics and piping principles.
A trigger-powered pump forces the liquid through a nozzle, which breaks the liquid stream and turns it into a fine mist or water stream.

The bottle is a reservoir, and when the user presses the trigger on the spray bottle, the pump pulls the liquid out of it. The liquid moves from the bottle to the tube. Tubes and reservoirs in spray bottles and other types of pumps, such as those in soap dispensers, are similar. For thinner liquids (such as cleaning products), thinner tubes can be used, but for thicker liquids (such as hand sanitizers), thicker tubes are needed to pump the liquid.

Water pump
The pump is the main working part of the spray bottle. The pump consists of a trigger mechanism, a piston, a cylinder and a check valve. When the user presses the trigger, it forces the piston into the cylinder, forcing the liquid to flow through the nozzle as a concentrated liquid. When the trigger is released, the piston moves backwards, pulling the liquid back into the cylinder. The next time the trigger is pressed, the liquid is forced out of the nozzle. The check valve on the bottom of the pump only allows liquid to flow up the pipe into the pump, not back to the bottle.

The spray bottle nozzle concentrates the liquid into a liquid by forcing the liquid through a small hole. The spray bottle nozzle also has a non-return valve to prevent air from flowing back into the pump and allows suction inside the pump to suck liquid up into the tube. Without this valve, the pump will suck air into the cylinder instead of absorbing liquid from the bottle.

Other design elements
Some nozzles have a built-in screen with a number of fine holes that make the liquid emerge like a mist, and some nozzles can be screwed to lock the bottle and prevent the liquid from escaping. The bottom of the tube on some spray bottles also has a wider section to facilitate liquid absorption. Sometimes, the wider tube end has a screen to prevent solid matter from being drawn into the tube.

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