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HashiCorp Certified: Vault Associate (002) Sample Questions (Q54-Q59):

NEW QUESTION # 54
Which Vault secret engine may be used to build your own internal certificate authority?

  • A. PKI
  • B. PostgreSQL
  • C. Generic
  • D. Transit

Answer: A

Explanation:
The Vault secret engine that can be used to build your own internal certificate authority is the PKI secret engine. The PKI secret engine generates dynamic X.509 certificates on-demand, without requiring manual processes of generating private keys and CSRs, submitting to a CA, and waiting for verification and signing. The PKI secret engine can act as a root CA or an intermediate CA, and can issue certificates for various purposes, such as TLS, code signing, email encryption, etc. The PKI secret engine can also manage the certificate lifecycle, such as rotation, revocation, renewal, and CRL generation. The PKI secret engine can also integrate with external CAs, such as Venafi or Entrust, to delegate the certificate issuance and management. Reference: PKI - Secrets Engines | Vault | HashiCorp Developer, Build Your Own Certificate Authority (CA) | Vault - HashiCorp Learn


NEW QUESTION # 55
What environment variable overrides the CLI's default Vault server address?

  • A. VAULT_ADDR
  • B. VAULT_HTTP_ADORESS
  • C. VAULT_ADDRESS
  • D. VAULT _HTTPS_ ADDRESS

Answer: B

Explanation:
The environment variable VAULT_ADDR overrides the CLI's default Vault server address. The VAULT_ADDR environment variable specifies the address of the Vault server that is used to communicate with Vault from other applications or processes. By setting this variable, you can avoid hard-coding the Vault server address in your code or configuration files, and you can also use different addresses for different environments or scenarios. For example, you can use a local development server for testing purposes, and a production server for deploying your application. Reference: Commands (CLI) | Vault | HashiCorp Developer, Vault Agent - secrets as environment variables | Vault | HashiCorp Developer


NEW QUESTION # 56
The Vault encryption key is stored in Vault's backend storage.

  • A. True
  • B. False

Answer: B

Explanation:
The statement is false. The Vault encryption key is not stored in Vault's backend storage, but rather in Vault's memory. The Vault encryption key is the key that is used to encrypt and decrypt the data that is stored in Vault's backend storage, such as secrets, tokens, policies, etc. The Vault encryption key is derived from the master key, which is generated when Vault is initialized. The master key is split into unseal keys using Shamir's secret sharing algorithm, and the unseal keys are distributed to trusted operators. To start Vault, a quorum of unseal keys is required to reconstruct the master key and derive the encryption key. The encryption key is then kept in memory and used to protect the data in Vault's backend storage. The encryption key is never written to disk or exposed via the API. Reference: Seal/Unseal | Vault | HashiCorp Developer, Key Rotation | Vault | HashiCorp Developer


NEW QUESTION # 57
You are using Vault's Transit secrets engine to encrypt your dat
a. You want to reduce the amount of content encrypted with a single key in case the key gets compromised. How would you do this?

  • A. Upgrade to Vault Enterprise and integrate with HSM
  • B. Periodically re-key the Vault's unseal keys
  • C. Periodically rotate the encryption key
  • D. Use 4096-bit RSA key to encrypt the data

Answer: C

Explanation:
The Transit secrets engine supports the rotation of encryption keys, which allows you to change the key that is used to encrypt new data without affecting the ability to decrypt data that was already encrypted. This reduces the amount of content encrypted with a single key in case the key gets compromised, and also helps you comply with the NIST guidelines for key rotation. You can rotate the encryption key manually by invoking the /transit/keys/<name>/rotate endpoint, or you can configure the key to automatically rotate based on a time interval or a number of encryption operations. When you rotate a key, Vault generates a new key version and increments the key's latest_version metadata. The new key version becomes the encryption key used for encrypting any new data. The previous key versions are still available for decrypting the existing data, unless you specify a minimum decryption version to archive the old key versions. You can also delete or disable old key versions if you want to revoke access to the data encrypted with those versions. Reference: https://developer.hashicorp.com/vault/docs/secrets/transit1, https://developer.hashicorp.com/vault/api-docs/secret/transit2


NEW QUESTION # 58
A web application uses Vault's transit secrets engine to encrypt data in-transit. If an attacker intercepts the data in transit which of the following statements are true? Choose two correct answers.

  • A. The keys can be rotated and min_decryption_version moved forward to ensure this data cannot be decrypted
  • B. You can rotate the encryption key so that the attacker won't be able to decrypt the data
  • C. Even if the attacker was able to access the raw data, they would only have encrypted bits (TLS in transit)
  • D. The Vault administrator would need to seal the Vault server immediately

Answer: A,C

Explanation:
A web application that uses Vault's transit secrets engine to encrypt data in-transit can benefit from the following security features:
Even if the attacker was able to access the raw data, they would only have encrypted bits (TLS in transit). This means that the attacker would need to obtain the encryption key from Vault in order to decrypt the data, which is protected by Vault's authentication and authorization mechanisms. The transit secrets engine does not store the data sent to it, so the attacker cannot access the data from Vault either.
The keys can be rotated and min_decryption_version moved forward to ensure this data cannot be decrypted. This means that the web application can periodically change the encryption key used to encrypt the data, and set a minimum decryption version for the key, which prevents older versions of the key from being used to decrypt the data. This way, even if the attacker somehow obtained an old version of the key, they would not be able to decrypt the data that was encrypted with a newer version of the key.
The other statements are not true, because:
You cannot rotate the encryption key so that the attacker won't be able to decrypt the data. Rotating the key alone does not prevent the attacker from decrypting the data, as they may still have access to the old version of the key that was used to encrypt the data. You need to also move the min_decryption_version forward to invalidate the old version of the key.
The Vault administrator would not need to seal the Vault server immediately. Sealing the Vault server would make it inaccessible to both the attacker and the legitimate users, and would require unsealing it with the unseal keys or the recovery keys. Sealing the Vault server is a last resort option in case of a severe compromise or emergency, and is not necessary in this scenario, as the attacker does not have access to the encryption key or the data in Vault. Reference: Transit - Secrets Engines | Vault | HashiCorp Developer, Encryption as a service: transit secrets engine | Vault | HashiCorp Developer


NEW QUESTION # 59
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